The Penn Education and Inequality Working Papers Series is intended to allow workshop participants and alumni to share their research to a broad audience. Also, take a look at the Penn Education and Inequality Workshop website for more information. Current and former workshop participants may submit a paper or preprint for consideration by sending it to: firstname.lastname@example.org. Please include the following information along with your paper: abstract, keywords, affiliations and a URL (if available) for all authors. Current students should additionally provide an email indicating support/approval of their submission from a faculty advisor. Publishing your preprint or working paper here in the ScholarlyCommons@Penn does not preclude publication elsewhere, and your paper can be edited to include updates or link out to other published versions as desired.