Hyunjoon Park's Pilot Awards

  • Conference Sessions on Aging and Retirement

    Abstract: 
    Hyunjoon Park and Emily Hannum in the Department of Sociology and Population Studies Center would like to request support for the 2015 Summer Conference of Research Committee 28 (RC28, Social Stratification and Mobility) of the International Sociological Association, to be held at the University of Pennsylvania, August 17-19. Specifically, we would like to ask for TRIO support to sponsor sessions related to aging, life course, and inter-generational wealth transfers and savings in the three-day conference.
    Funded By: 
    PARC
    Award Dates: 
    July 1, 2014 - June 30, 2015
    PARC Grant Year: 
    Year 21
  • Silver Spoons, Falling Apples, Grandparental Effects and from Rags to Riches to Rags

    Abstract: 
    In recent years, social scientists have increasingly become interested in the effects of grandparents on grandchildren’s demographic, educational and occupational outcomes, leading to the burgeoning literature on multigenerational effects. The growing interest in multigenerational effects reflects the aging trend and growing economic inequality under which grandparents’ roles for grandchildren’s demographic, educational, and economic outcomes may be increasingly relevant. In the proposed pilot project, we will summarize and critically reinterpret three-generational studies in the literature to demonstrate that in the presence of intergenerationally-correlated endowments, the many studies that purport to estimate the effects of parental and grandparental characteristics on child outcomes are misinterpreted in ways that are likely to overstate substantially direct parental effects and indirect grandparental effects, and maybe even have the sign wrong for direct grandparental effects. By “intergenerationally-correlated endowments” we mean important factors that affect the outcomes of interest that are usually not observed in social science data, and that are transmitted from one generation to the next, such as family culture or genes. To evaluate existing studies, we will apply the model of intergenerational relations with consideration of endowments, extending earlier work of Behrman. Based on our evaluation of the literature, we will develop a model that will permit identification of grandparental effects with data on four generations, locate data across four generations, explore and reinterpret intergenerational relations in depth to understand better their causal nature, and prepare an NIH application to undertake this research.
    Funded By: 
    Boettner
    Award Dates: 
    July 1, 2015 - June 30, 2016
  • Age Variation in the Relationship between Health Literacy and Self-Rated Health

    Abstract: 
    A growing body of research is interested in the roles of health literacy in affecting health outcomes. Improving health literacy among Americans is one of the health goals specified in Health People 2010 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. However, there are some important gaps in the existing literature. Most research has primarily focused on very specific groups of people within specific health care settings using measures of health literacy that are designed only for medical setting. Moreover, the potential variation by age and gender in the association between health literacy and health outcomes has not been systematically examined. In this study, I empirically test two hypotheses using data from a nationally representative sample of 18,102 American adults (2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy; NAAL): 1) health literacy is positively associated with self-rated health for both men and women, net of such covariates as race/ethnicity, immigrant status, parental education, educational attainment, poverty, welfare receipts, household income and health insurance coverage; 2) the effect of health literacy on self-rated health increases by age for both men and women. I measure the effect of health literacy as the gaps in the likelihood of having higher levels of self-rated health status among three groups of people with different levels of health literacy. I use ordered regression models that predict the likelihood of having higher levels of self-rated health by health literacy and other covariates using the whole sample of men and women, separately, to test Hypothesis 1. Then, I examine the association between health literacy and self-rated health across separate age groups to see how the association changes by age (Hypothesis 2).
    Funded By: 
    PARC
    Funded By: 
    NICHD
    Award Dates: 
    July 1, 2007 - June 30, 2008
    PARC Grant Year: 
    Year 14
  • The Literacy Gap between Those with High Levels and Low Levels of Educational Attainment among Older Adults: A Comparative Study of 20 Countries

    Abstract: 
    In the aging society, literacy skills among older adults become increasingly relevant for their economic and health outcomes, which makes it important to examine the levels and distributions of literacy skills among old population. In this pilot study, I compare the distributions of literacy skills among aged 56-65 in the U.S. and 19 other countries that participated in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). I focus on the crossnational variation in the literacy gap between those with high levels and those with low levels of education. The large literacy gap between those with different levels of educational attainment implies significant disadvantages of people with low levels of educational attainment who also suffer from low levels of literacy skills. Cross-national comparisons may shed some light on why some countries are more successful in maintaining narrower literacy gaps among older adults. In particular, features of educational systems and between-country differences in opportunities of the participation in adult education and training are discussed as potential factors. In order to better identify sources of the cross-national variation, I also examine how the specific degree of literacy gap among older adults is compared to the gap among younger adults within countries. By examining how literacy inequality by educational attainment evolves with age, I aim to extend knowledge on social inequality associated with aging. Regression models predicting each of prose, document, and quantitative literacy scores by education, age, post-schooling experiences and other individual-level variables are estimated for each country, separately.
    Funded By: 
    PARC
    Funded By: 
    NICHD
    Award Dates: 
    July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2007
    PARC Grant Year: 
    Year 13